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Battery Types


Battery Types



The lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery, also called LFP battery (with "LFP" standing for "lithium ferrohosphate"), is a type of rechargeable battery, specifically a lithium-ion battery, which uses LiFePO4 as a cathode material. Li-phosphate offers good electrochemical performance with low resistance. Li-phosphate is often used to replace the lead acid starter battery. Four cells in series produce 12.80V, a similar voltage to six 2V lead acid cells in series.  The key benefits are high current rating and long cycle life, besides good thermal stability, enhanced safety and tolerance if abused.

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Lead Crystal

The patented technology found in lead crystal batteries uses a special advanced technology formula, a new type of composite SiO2 electrolyte developed to completely replace traditional sulphuric acid solution. This in turn improves the product’s application and safety performance.

While often compared to AGM the Lead Crystal out performs both GEL and AGM with the added ability to recovery if fully discharged.

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Gel (Gelled Electrolyte), Flat Plate Gel

Gelled batteries contain acid, but the acid is turned into a gooey gel form by the addition of silica gel. This means that the batteries won’t leak acid even in broken, like AGMs. However, there are some disadvantages compared to AGMs, such as not being able to be charged at as high a rate, and being less forgiving if overcharged.

Tubular Gel

Unlike standard flat plate gel batteries, tubular gel batteries use special tubular plate design that provides a large increase in performance. These batteries are typically used for long life power storage solutions due to extremely high service life and cyclic life. Unlike standard 12V batteries that contain 6 individual cells within a single battery, tubular gel usually only contains a single 2V cell in each battery, which further increases reliability.

AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat)

In the battery’s internal construction, there is a fine fibre glass mat between each of the internal plates. This mat absorbs the acid in the battery, so that there is no liquid acid that can leak even if the battery is damaged. This provides several advantages such as long service life, maintenance free design, and no gassing off.

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Lead Acid

This term basically implies that the battery uses lead plates and acid as the chemistry components that power it (compared to other chemistry types such as lithium or nickel-cadmium). Most deep cycle batteries available are lead acid, including AGM and GEL.

Flooded, Wet Cell

Flooded batteries have free flowing liquid acid inside the battery, and are the opposite of AGM or Gel style batteries. This method of construction is typically used in automotive batteries, but it can also be used in deep cycle battery applications, however these will not last nearly as long their AGM or Gel counter parts.

VRLA (Valve Regulated Lead Acid), SLA (Sealed Lead Acid)

VRLA and SLA refer to batteries that are entirely sealed, without requiring any water or acid to be added. They can be used to describe either flooded style batteries that are sealed, or AGM/Gel batteries without liquid acid. Typically, these batteries are maintenance free, will not leak acid, and also feature a safety release valve which will release gas in an emergency situation if there is excessive internal pressure.


Marine batteries are as the name implies, designed for marine purposes such as running electronics on a boat. They are a hybrid style battery that can start a boat motor with a reasonable cranking capacity, but also have deep cycle capabilities. Typically, this battery is built in a fully sealed flooded acid construction.


A calcium battery basically means that calcium has been added to the construction of the battery. Calcium lowers the internal resistance, allowing for a higher cranking capacity. Calcium batteries typically refer in automotive batteries.

High Discharge

High discharge implies that the batteries allow a greater flow of current than standard batteries. This is ideal for situations with high current draws such as operating winches or electric motors. 

Automotive, Starting, SLI

Typically used to start an engine, these batteries are not suitable for deep cycle use and will quickly fail if used for this purpose. Automotive batteries are built to offer a high cranking capacity to kick over an engine, and this only uses a very small portion of the battery capacity before it is recharged. This is why an automotive battery will last a long time in a vehicle, but not if reasonable amounts of power are discharge from it regularly in RV applications.


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